Non-flowering plants - Ferns, mosses, clubmoss, liverworts

Image Number Image (Click to Enlarge)CaptionImage Viewed
1 Moss and a mushroom

Moss and a mushroom

Moss and a mushroom 4146
2 Moss

Moss

Moss 3483
3 Spore caps of moss.

Spore caps of moss.

Spore caps of moss. 2303
4 Moss Spore caps

Moss Spore caps

Moss Spore caps 3756
5 Moss spore caps

Moss spore caps

Moss spore caps 1928
6 moss

moss

moss 2152
7 moss

moss

moss 1923
8 <strong>Liverworts</strong> are an ancient, non-flowering plant that grow in damp environments, such as on wet rocks or decaying, damp logs. They reproduce by means of eggs and sperm produced by the <em>gametophytes</em>

Liverworts are an ancient, non-flowering plant that grow in damp environments, such as on wet rocks or decaying, damp logs. They reproduce by means of eggs and sperm produced by the gametophytes

Liverworts are an ancient, non-flowering plant that grow in damp environments, such as on wet rocks or decaying, damp logs. They reproduce by means of eggs and sperm produced by the gametophytes 3763
9 This Close-up of Liverwort shows the pores in the surface of the <em>thallus</em>.

This Close-up of Liverwort shows the pores in the surface of the thallus.

This Close-up of Liverwort shows the pores in the surface of the thallus. 1938
10 I found these <em>Marchantia</em> <strong>Liverworts</strong> growing on the base of a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park. The little stalked,  umbrella-shaped structures are the male reproductive organs of these primative plants. The small cup-shape...

I found these Marchantia Liverworts growing on the base of a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park. The little stalked, umbrella-shaped structures are the male reproductive organs of these primative plants. The small cup-shape...

I found these Marchantia Liverworts growing on the base of a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park. The little stalked, umbrella-shaped structures are the male reproductive organs of these primative plants. The small cup-shaped structures are called gemma cups, they contain small pieces of plant tissue that can be removed by raindrops to generate new liverworts. 2221
11 <strong>"Running Ground Cedar" Lycopodium - a club moss</strong>
<em>Lycopodium digitatum</em>
This plant grew to tree-size millions of years before the dinosuars lived. The fossils of Lycopodium can be found in the rocks in the coal mines on the Cum...

"Running Ground Cedar" Lycopodium - a club moss Lycopodium digitatum This plant grew to tree-size millions of years before the dinosuars lived. The fossils of Lycopodium can be found in the rocks in the coal mines on the Cum...

"Running Ground Cedar" Lycopodium - a club moss Lycopodium digitatum This plant grew to tree-size millions of years before the dinosuars lived. The fossils of Lycopodium can be found in the rocks in the coal mines on the Cumberland Plateau. The light brown spore cases produce massive amounts of spores in the fall. Due to their high flammability, photographers once used them as flash powder for late 19th early 20th century cameras. Because it is an evergreen plant, Early settlers collected and sold the vine to make festive Christmas decorations. The genus name means "wolf's foot", somebody had a really weird imagination on that one! The next photo shows a close relative, the Ground Pine lycopodium. 4268
12 <strong>Ground Pine Lycopodium</strong>
<em>Lycopodium obscurum</em>
Note how the plant differs from the previous lycopodium.

Ground Pine Lycopodium Lycopodium obscurum Note how the plant differs from the previous lycopodium.

Ground Pine Lycopodium Lycopodium obscurum Note how the plant differs from the previous lycopodium. 2198
13 Crustose Lichens and a <strong>Mountain Spleenwort</strong>
<em>Asplenium montanum</em>
These ferns are often found growing in the cracks of rocks on damp cliffsides. This plant was growing along the rock wall at Piney Falls.

Crustose Lichens and a Mountain Spleenwort Asplenium montanum These ferns are often found growing in the cracks of rocks on damp cliffsides. This plant was growing along the rock wall at Piney Falls.

Crustose Lichens and a Mountain Spleenwort Asplenium montanum These ferns are often found growing in the cracks of rocks on damp cliffsides. This plant was growing along the rock wall at Piney Falls. 2176
14 <strong>Walking Fern</strong>
<em>Asplenium rhizophyllum</em>
Walking Ferns get their name from the way the leaves grow to a long point. A new fern will grow from the leaf tip and that leaf will do likewise, causing the plants to "walk" across the lo...

Walking Fern Asplenium rhizophyllum Walking Ferns get their name from the way the leaves grow to a long point. A new fern will grow from the leaf tip and that leaf will do likewise, causing the plants to "walk" across the lo...

Walking Fern Asplenium rhizophyllum Walking Ferns get their name from the way the leaves grow to a long point. A new fern will grow from the leaf tip and that leaf will do likewise, causing the plants to "walk" across the log or rock. 2482
15 Walking Fern

Walking Fern

Walking Fern 1801
16 <strong>Northern Maidenhair Fern</strong>
<em>Asplenium trichomanes</em>
This is a beautiful, delicate fern. It is a decidious fern which dies back each winter then sprouts anew in the spring.

Northern Maidenhair Fern Asplenium trichomanes This is a beautiful, delicate fern. It is a decidious fern which dies back each winter then sprouts anew in the spring.

Northern Maidenhair Fern Asplenium trichomanes This is a beautiful, delicate fern. It is a decidious fern which dies back each winter then sprouts anew in the spring. 2343
17 <strong>Southern Maidenhair Fern</strong>
<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris</em>
July 21,2007
Rock Island State Park

Southern Maidenhair Fern Adiantum capillus-veneris July 21,2007 Rock Island State Park

Southern Maidenhair Fern Adiantum capillus-veneris July 21,2007 Rock Island State Park 1663
18 Ferns

Ferns

Ferns 2618
19 <strong>Bracken fern</strong>
<em>Pteridium aquilinum</em>
These ferns are very common in waste areas in the southeast. It is poisonous to humans, pigs, sheep, horses, cattle. The principal toxin is <u>thiaminase</u>, a chemical that splits thiamine ...

Bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum These ferns are very common in waste areas in the southeast. It is poisonous to humans, pigs, sheep, horses, cattle. The principal toxin is thiaminase, a chemical that splits thiamine ...

Bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum These ferns are very common in waste areas in the southeast. It is poisonous to humans, pigs, sheep, horses, cattle. The principal toxin is thiaminase, a chemical that splits thiamine (vitamin B1). 2949
20 <strong>Long Beech Fern</strong>
<em>Thelypteris phegopteris</em> 
Ferns can be very hard to tell apart, but this is a pretty easy one. Note the two bottom leaflets, they point downward. I photographed these in the Smokies.

Long Beech Fern Thelypteris phegopteris Ferns can be very hard to tell apart, but this is a pretty easy one. Note the two bottom leaflets, they point downward. I photographed these in the Smokies.

Long Beech Fern Thelypteris phegopteris Ferns can be very hard to tell apart, but this is a pretty easy one. Note the two bottom leaflets, they point downward. I photographed these in the Smokies. 1727
21 <strong>Christmas Fern</strong> with spores
<em>Polystichum acrostichoides</em>
These common woodland ferns are "evergreen," the fronds do not die back in the winter like some other ferns. Many ferns produce spores in sori on the underside of the pin...

Christmas Fern with spores Polystichum acrostichoides These common woodland ferns are "evergreen," the fronds do not die back in the winter like some other ferns. Many ferns produce spores in sori on the underside of the pin...

Christmas Fern with spores Polystichum acrostichoides These common woodland ferns are "evergreen," the fronds do not die back in the winter like some other ferns. Many ferns produce spores in sori on the underside of the pinnae ("leaves") for reproduction. 2806
22 <strong>New York Fern</strong>
<em>Thelypteris noveboracensis</em>
Notice how the lower leaflets get smaller and smaller instead of larger the way most ferns do.

New York Fern Thelypteris noveboracensis Notice how the lower leaflets get smaller and smaller instead of larger the way most ferns do.

New York Fern Thelypteris noveboracensis Notice how the lower leaflets get smaller and smaller instead of larger the way most ferns do. 1603
23 <strong>Sensitive Fern</strong>
<em>Onoclea sensibilis</em>
This fern is common in damp woods.

Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis This fern is common in damp woods.

Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis This fern is common in damp woods. 1842
24 <strong>Royal Fern</strong>
<em>Osmunda regalis</em>
These ferns were planted at the University of Tennessee Arboretum. The spores are located on the brown fertile leaf stalks.

Royal Fern Osmunda regalis These ferns were planted at the University of Tennessee Arboretum. The spores are located on the brown fertile leaf stalks.

Royal Fern Osmunda regalis These ferns were planted at the University of Tennessee Arboretum. The spores are located on the brown fertile leaf stalks. 1609
25 Sensitive Fern close-up

Sensitive Fern close-up

Sensitive Fern close-up 1124
26 <strong>Southern Grape Fern</strong>
<em>Botrychium biternatum</em>
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Sept. 16, 2007
Unlike most other ferns that produce spores under the <em>pinnae</em> ("leaves"), this fern has its spores on a single stalk.

Southern Grape Fern Botrychium biternatum Great Smoky Mountains NP Sept. 16, 2007 Unlike most other ferns that produce spores under the pinnae ("leaves"), this fern has its spores on a single stalk.

Southern Grape Fern Botrychium biternatum Great Smoky Mountains NP Sept. 16, 2007 Unlike most other ferns that produce spores under the pinnae ("leaves"), this fern has its spores on a single stalk. 1323
27 <strong>Ebony Spleenwort</strong>
<em>Asplenium platyneuron</em>
The spores are located on the back side of the pinnae ("leaves"). This Spleenwort has a black stipe ("stem").

Ebony Spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron The spores are located on the back side of the pinnae ("leaves"). This Spleenwort has a black stipe ("stem").

Ebony Spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron The spores are located on the back side of the pinnae ("leaves"). This Spleenwort has a black stipe ("stem"). 1603
28 Fern sori

Fern sori

Fern sori 1958
29 <strong>Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody</strong>
<em>Pleopeltis polypoioides</em>
This is an interesting epiphytic, or tree-climbing, fern that will sometimes cover the trunks and limbs of a tree. I've seen Pecan trees in the Florida panhandle t...

Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody Pleopeltis polypoioides This is an interesting epiphytic, or tree-climbing, fern that will sometimes cover the trunks and limbs of a tree. I've seen Pecan trees in the Florida panhandle t...

Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody Pleopeltis polypoioides This is an interesting epiphytic, or tree-climbing, fern that will sometimes cover the trunks and limbs of a tree. I've seen Pecan trees in the Florida panhandle that are covered with this fern. When the fern's fronds dry they curl up, like the ones in this photo, giving it the nickname "resurrection fern". Note the brown sori, the dry spore-containing bodies on the underside of the fronds. The following photo shows fresh sori. 1308
30 <strong>Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody</strong>
<em>Pleopeltis polypoioides</em>
This photo shows the fern when it is growing in damp conditions. The yellow spheres contain the spores.

Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody Pleopeltis polypoioides This photo shows the fern when it is growing in damp conditions. The yellow spheres contain the spores.

Resurrection or Little Gray Polypody Pleopeltis polypoioides This photo shows the fern when it is growing in damp conditions. The yellow spheres contain the spores. 1372
31 <strong>Adder's Tongue Fern</strong>
<em>Ophioglossum</em> spp.
Frozen Head SP
April 21, 2007
David, the head ranger at Frozen Head, told me about seeing this unusual fern along one of the trails. He took me and 2 other rangers to show us what they...

Adder's Tongue Fern Ophioglossum spp. Frozen Head SP April 21, 2007 David, the head ranger at Frozen Head, told me about seeing this unusual fern along one of the trails. He took me and 2 other rangers to show us what they...

Adder's Tongue Fern Ophioglossum spp. Frozen Head SP April 21, 2007 David, the head ranger at Frozen Head, told me about seeing this unusual fern along one of the trails. He took me and 2 other rangers to show us what they look like. I had just lead a hike along that trail and didn't see them! This fern has a single leaf and a stalk with the spore cases. 1789
32 Southern Maidenhair Ferns on the cliff at Rock Island SP

Southern Maidenhair Ferns on the cliff at Rock Island SP

Southern Maidenhair Ferns on the cliff at Rock Island SP 1156
33 Ferns on a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park

Ferns on a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park

Ferns on a damp cliff at Rock Island State Park 1011
34 <strong>Horsetails; Scouring Rushes</strong>
<em>Equusetum spp. </em>
These unusual plants are considered "Living Fossils," their much larger ancient ancestors pre-date the dinosaurs. Their fossils can be found in the Cumberland Mountains and in shal...

Horsetails; Scouring Rushes Equusetum spp. These unusual plants are considered "Living Fossils," their much larger ancient ancestors pre-date the dinosaurs. Their fossils can be found in the Cumberland Mountains and in shal...

Horsetails; Scouring Rushes Equusetum spp. These unusual plants are considered "Living Fossils," their much larger ancient ancestors pre-date the dinosaurs. Their fossils can be found in the Cumberland Mountains and in shale deposits on the Cumberland Plateau. They are not blooming plants; they make spores, not seeds. 6016
35 Horsetails are a "living fossil." They contain silica, which gives them their distinctive scratchy texture. Like Bracken Ferns, they contain thiaminase and are poisonous to horses.

Horsetails are a "living fossil." They contain silica, which gives them their distinctive scratchy texture. Like Bracken Ferns, they contain thiaminase and are poisonous to horses.

Horsetails are a "living fossil." They contain silica, which gives them their distinctive scratchy texture. Like Bracken Ferns, they contain thiaminase and are poisonous to horses. 1464
36 <strong>Nostoc</strong> is <u>not</u> a plant, it is a type of blue-green algae or <em>cyanobacteria</em>, one of the most primitive of organisms. Some scientists believe these organisms  produced the first oxygen for Earth's early atmosphere. Nostoc i...

Nostoc is not a plant, it is a type of blue-green algae or cyanobacteria, one of the most primitive of organisms. Some scientists believe these organisms produced the first oxygen for Earth's early atmosphere. Nostoc i...

Nostoc is not a plant, it is a type of blue-green algae or cyanobacteria, one of the most primitive of organisms. Some scientists believe these organisms produced the first oxygen for Earth's early atmosphere. Nostoc is also a nitrogen fixer, it can take N2 from the air to be used in symbiotic relationships with mosses, ferns, lichens and other fungi. This kind grows on the ground. It is soft and mushy when it is wet, when it is dry it is black, and brittle. 1748
37 <strong>Batrachospermum</strong> - A freshwater Red Alga that is classified as <em>Rhodophyta</em>. This alga grows on the rocks at the UT Arboretum in Oak Ridge. It seems to prefer cold, running water. Often I am unable to find it in the late summer. ...

Batrachospermum - A freshwater Red Alga that is classified as Rhodophyta. This alga grows on the rocks at the UT Arboretum in Oak Ridge. It seems to prefer cold, running water. Often I am unable to find it in the late summer. ...

Batrachospermum - A freshwater Red Alga that is classified as Rhodophyta. This alga grows on the rocks at the UT Arboretum in Oak Ridge. It seems to prefer cold, running water. Often I am unable to find it in the late summer. Algae are often slimy due to a slime covering on the cells. This is why it is so hard to walk down a boat ramp or on rocks in a stream! Some algae can impart an unpleasant smell and taste to water, others can poison ponds and lakes due to toxins they produce and release into the water. This stuff is so slimy I usually take a long pair of forceps (tweezers) to remove it from the rocks. Why would I want to collect it, you may wonder? It is very lovely to look at under a microscope! I use it in my microbiology classes. The kids are often suprised to see how pretty simple "pond scum" can be! See the following picture of it through a microscope. 2017
38 <strong>Appalachian Fir Club-moss</strong>
<em>Huperzia appalachiana</em>
Club mosses are ancient plants whose early ancestors date back long before the dinosaurs. You'll have to do some high elevation hiking or drive to Clingmans Dome to see this pl...

Appalachian Fir Club-moss Huperzia appalachiana Club mosses are ancient plants whose early ancestors date back long before the dinosaurs. You'll have to do some high elevation hiking or drive to Clingmans Dome to see this pl...

Appalachian Fir Club-moss Huperzia appalachiana Club mosses are ancient plants whose early ancestors date back long before the dinosaurs. You'll have to do some high elevation hiking or drive to Clingmans Dome to see this plant because it grows above 6,000 feet (which is very high for Tennessee). I photographed this plant on the trail to Charlie's Bunion in the Smokies. 1725
39 <strong>Shining Club-moss</strong>
<em>Huperzia lucidula</em> 
Great Smoky Mountains NP
July 12, 2007
I found these club-moss plants while participating in a sensory awareness activity in the Smokies. Notice the small flat strucures at the top of e...

Shining Club-moss Huperzia lucidula Great Smoky Mountains NP July 12, 2007 I found these club-moss plants while participating in a sensory awareness activity in the Smokies. Notice the small flat strucures at the top of e...

Shining Club-moss Huperzia lucidula Great Smoky Mountains NP July 12, 2007 I found these club-moss plants while participating in a sensory awareness activity in the Smokies. Notice the small flat strucures at the top of each shoot. These are reproductive bodies called gemmae, which can break off and form new plants. Club-mosses are ancient plants that date back to the time before the dinosaurs. 2068
40 This watery garden of Moss and algae was growing at the base of the cliff at Rock Island State Park. The cliff faced north, helping to keep it damp.

This watery garden of Moss and algae was growing at the base of the cliff at Rock Island State Park. The cliff faced north, helping to keep it damp.

This watery garden of Moss and algae was growing at the base of the cliff at Rock Island State Park. The cliff faced north, helping to keep it damp. 1832

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