Lichens

This gallery contains photos and information about different kinds of lichens
Image Number Image (Click to Enlarge)CaptionImage Viewed
1 <strong>Lichen types</strong>

Lichens are dual kingdom organisms, although they are classified in the Kingdom Fungi. They are <u>not</u> plants, they are composed of algae and fungi living together in a symbiotic relationship. The fungus part (<em>m...

Lichen types Lichens are dual kingdom organisms, although they are classified in the Kingdom Fungi. They are not plants, they are composed of algae and fungi living together in a symbiotic relationship. The fungus part (m...

Lichen types Lichens are dual kingdom organisms, although they are classified in the Kingdom Fungi. They are not plants, they are composed of algae and fungi living together in a symbiotic relationship. The fungus part (mycobiont) holds water and gives the lichen its shape; the algae (photobiont) make food by means of photosynthesis. more about lichens There are 6 different types of lichen growth forms (the first 3 are the most commonly used among amateur naturalists):
Crustose - grows like a crust on trees or rocks
Foliose - leaf-like (the light green ones in this picture)
Fruticose - long, hairy lichens, often with cups Squamulose - Thallus (main body of lichen) is scaly, shelf-like; the reproductive bodies are called podetia Umbilicate - these lichens grow on rocks; they are attached at one point near the center by an "umbilicus" Gelatinous - these lichens are a dark blue-green, black or brown; the thallus is jelly-like; they grow on trees or the ground, often associated with moss
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2 Some of the nice things about lichen is that you can enjoy them year-round; they grow just about everywhere; they come in a beautiful variety of colors, shapes and textures; and best of all, they don't move in the wind! My poor husband will now have pu...

Some of the nice things about lichen is that you can enjoy them year-round; they grow just about everywhere; they come in a beautiful variety of colors, shapes and textures; and best of all, they don't move in the wind! My poor husband will now have pu...

Some of the nice things about lichen is that you can enjoy them year-round; they grow just about everywhere; they come in a beautiful variety of colors, shapes and textures; and best of all, they don't move in the wind! My poor husband will now have put up with me taking photos of another kind of organism! ;) These lichens were photographed after a snowfall in the Smokies on Feb. 22, 2009. Lichens are incredibly resilient organisms, they can withstand cold, heat, and drought. Their "Achilles' heel" is poor air quality since they absorb water and nutrients from the air. Park rangers and researchers are studying the health of lichens in the higher elevations of the Smokies to help monitor air quality. Lichens grow at an incredibly slow pace, some from 0.1mm to 0.5mm / year! Large lichens can be very old; all the more reason to not damage them! 777
3 <strong>Foliose Lichen thallus</strong> (composite)

There is no real foliose lichen that has all of these features, but all of those lichens will have some of them.
<u>Lobes</u> can be narrow or wide, they give the lichen its "leafy" appearance (th...

Foliose Lichen thallus (composite) There is no real foliose lichen that has all of these features, but all of those lichens will have some of them. Lobes can be narrow or wide, they give the lichen its "leafy" appearance (th...

Foliose Lichen thallus (composite) There is no real foliose lichen that has all of these features, but all of those lichens will have some of them. Lobes can be narrow or wide, they give the lichen its "leafy" appearance (thus the term "foliose"). Cilia are thin appendages that are found on the lobe margins of some lichens. Rhizines are not roots, they are outgrowths of hyphae that attach the lichen to its substrate (rocks, bark, etc.) These structures do not take up water or nutrients like plant roots. Sorelia and Isidia are vegetative reproductive bodies that contain both fungi and algae, they can grow a new lichen if the small pieces end up in a good growing location. Apothecia are flat or cup-like reproductive structures. 1012
4 Cross-section of a Lichen <em>thallus</em>

The <em>thallus</em> is the "body" of the lichen. It is made up of fungal hyphae and algal cells. The <u>cortex</u> is a layer of highly compacted fungal cells on the upper surface(and sometimes, lower surf...

Cross-section of a Lichen thallus The thallus is the "body" of the lichen. It is made up of fungal hyphae and algal cells. The cortex is a layer of highly compacted fungal cells on the upper surface(and sometimes, lower surf...

Cross-section of a Lichen thallus The thallus is the "body" of the lichen. It is made up of fungal hyphae and algal cells. The cortex is a layer of highly compacted fungal cells on the upper surface(and sometimes, lower surface) that protects the algal layer. The algal cells (photobiont) photosynthesize sugars for the lichen. The medulla is a spongy section of the lichen made up of loose fungal hyphae. Not all lichens have a lower cortex (including crustose lichens). 1798
5 The upper (right) and lower (left) edges of the <em>thallus</em>, the "body" of the lichen, are visible in this photo. The little black hair-like projections are called <em>cilia</em>, they are often used as aids for identifying lichen species. 

I r...

The upper (right) and lower (left) edges of the thallus, the "body" of the lichen, are visible in this photo. The little black hair-like projections are called cilia, they are often used as aids for identifying lichen species. I r...

The upper (right) and lower (left) edges of the thallus, the "body" of the lichen, are visible in this photo. The little black hair-like projections are called cilia, they are often used as aids for identifying lichen species. I received my Lichens of North America book (by Irwin M. Brodo, Sylvia Duran Sharnoff and Stephen Sharnoff), so now I can tentatively identify many of the lichens I find during my travels. The book is a HUGE (~3" thick) reference guide, it is definitely not a field guide that I will carry in my backpack! I'll use the book to try to identify the lichens in this gallery (you'll see the word "possibly" a lot!). Please refer to a professional guide and run the field tests for more accurate identification if you are working on a research paper, as many lichens look alike. I try to be as accurate as possible, but I'm not an expert! :) 634
6 I got a kick out of seeing the Lichen on this mailbox in Oak Ridge! It is amazing sometimes where lichens can establish themselves and grow! We once had a basketball goal net that was encrusted with them. We have small yellow lichens growing on the cem...

I got a kick out of seeing the Lichen on this mailbox in Oak Ridge! It is amazing sometimes where lichens can establish themselves and grow! We once had a basketball goal net that was encrusted with them. We have small yellow lichens growing on the cem...

I got a kick out of seeing the Lichen on this mailbox in Oak Ridge! It is amazing sometimes where lichens can establish themselves and grow! We once had a basketball goal net that was encrusted with them. We have small yellow lichens growing on the cement of our patio and driveway. Lichens do not have roots, so they do not damage the object they grow on. 628
7 I found these Crustose and Foliose Lichens growing on the old fiberglass truck bed topper in my parents' yard.

I found these Crustose and Foliose Lichens growing on the old fiberglass truck bed topper in my parents' yard.

I found these Crustose and Foliose Lichens growing on the old fiberglass truck bed topper in my parents' yard. 638
8 (Possibly)<strong>Sidewalk firedot lichen</strong> (wet)
<em>Caloplaca feracissima</em>? 
Oak Ridge, TN

This is a close-up of the small, yellow crustose lichen that was growing on our driveway. I had to remove it with a power washer because it was...

(Possibly)Sidewalk firedot lichen (wet) Caloplaca feracissima? Oak Ridge, TN This is a close-up of the small, yellow crustose lichen that was growing on our driveway. I had to remove it with a power washer because it was...

(Possibly)Sidewalk firedot lichen (wet) Caloplaca feracissima? Oak Ridge, TN This is a close-up of the small, yellow crustose lichen that was growing on our driveway. I had to remove it with a power washer because it was making the driveway slick when it was wet. 773
9 Another common place to find lichens is on headstones in old cemeteries. I found this one in Cades Cove in the Smokies. These lichens are growing on the sheep, which is made of marble. Some of the very old headstones were nearly illegible due to a heav...

Another common place to find lichens is on headstones in old cemeteries. I found this one in Cades Cove in the Smokies. These lichens are growing on the sheep, which is made of marble. Some of the very old headstones were nearly illegible due to a heav...

Another common place to find lichens is on headstones in old cemeteries. I found this one in Cades Cove in the Smokies. These lichens are growing on the sheep, which is made of marble. Some of the very old headstones were nearly illegible due to a heavy growth of lichens. 597
10 This old headstone in an Oak Ridge cemetery was nearly obscured by lichens. It was interesting to see how different types of lichens preferred certain kinds of stone and light conditions. This is a white marble stone, it is located in a partially shade...

This old headstone in an Oak Ridge cemetery was nearly obscured by lichens. It was interesting to see how different types of lichens preferred certain kinds of stone and light conditions. This is a white marble stone, it is located in a partially shade...

This old headstone in an Oak Ridge cemetery was nearly obscured by lichens. It was interesting to see how different types of lichens preferred certain kinds of stone and light conditions. This is a white marble stone, it is located in a partially shaded spot near a red cedar tree. 664
11 A close-up photo of lichens on a headstone.

A close-up photo of lichens on a headstone.

A close-up photo of lichens on a headstone. 628
12 A white crust lichen growing on a tree trunk.

A white crust lichen growing on a tree trunk.

A white crust lichen growing on a tree trunk. 813
13 <strong>A Pimple lichen</strong><br><em>Porina</em> spp. (possibly <em>heterospora</em>)<br>Great Smoky Mountains NP<br>Feb. 21, 2009

A Pimple lichen
Porina spp. (possibly heterospora)
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

A Pimple lichen
Porina spp. (possibly heterospora)
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009 This warty crustose lichen grew on the bark of a maple tree at Tremont.
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14 <strong>Smoky Eye Boulder Lichen</strong>
<em>Porpidia albocaerulescens</em>
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

This is a very common crustose lichen that grows on the rocks in the park. It is easy to identify because of the little bluish-gra...

Smoky Eye Boulder Lichen Porpidia albocaerulescens Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This is a very common crustose lichen that grows on the rocks in the park. It is easy to identify because of the little bluish-gra...

Smoky Eye Boulder Lichen Porpidia albocaerulescens Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This is a very common crustose lichen that grows on the rocks in the park. It is easy to identify because of the little bluish-gray apothecia, the cup-like reproductive bodies. 570
15 The little raised, white structures on this lichen are the <em>soredia</em>, the vegetative reproductive structures found on some crustose lichens.

The little raised, white structures on this lichen are the soredia, the vegetative reproductive structures found on some crustose lichens.

The little raised, white structures on this lichen are the soredia, the vegetative reproductive structures found on some crustose lichens. 637
16 <strong>Gold Dust Lichen</strong><br><em>Chrysothrix candelaris</em><br>Great Smoky Mountains NP<br>Feb. 21, 2009

Gold Dust Lichen
Chrysothrix candelaris
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

Gold Dust Lichen
Chrysothrix candelaris
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009 This brilliant yellow crustose lichen can cover large patches of rock. This is a lichen that can be seen from far away.
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17 Hmmm, too bad this vein of "gold dust" is just a lichen growing on the white quartz! Real gold is often found in veins of quartz in mines.

Hmmm, too bad this vein of "gold dust" is just a lichen growing on the white quartz! Real gold is often found in veins of quartz in mines.

Hmmm, too bad this vein of "gold dust" is just a lichen growing on the white quartz! Real gold is often found in veins of quartz in mines. 737
18 This is an orange lichen I found growing on a headstone in a nearby cemetery.

This is an orange lichen I found growing on a headstone in a nearby cemetery.

This is an orange lichen I found growing on a headstone in a nearby cemetery. 550
19 <strong>Flame Firedot Lichen</strong><br><em>Caloplaca ignea</em> (orange)Possibly<br> <em>Acarospora</em> sp. (yellow)<br>March 20, 2007

Flame Firedot Lichen
Caloplaca ignea (orange)Possibly
Acarospora sp. (yellow)
March 20, 2007

Flame Firedot Lichen
Caloplaca ignea (orange)Possibly
Acarospora sp. (yellow)
March 20, 2007 I found this brightly-colored lichen growing on granite rock in Joshua Tree National Park in southern California.
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20 This interesting mix of lichen species shows some of the varieties that can be found on a single twig. Often, older tree branches may be completely covered in lichens. The cup-like structures are called <em>apothecia</em>, they contain the spores for t...

This interesting mix of lichen species shows some of the varieties that can be found on a single twig. Often, older tree branches may be completely covered in lichens. The cup-like structures are called apothecia, they contain the spores for t...

This interesting mix of lichen species shows some of the varieties that can be found on a single twig. Often, older tree branches may be completely covered in lichens. The cup-like structures are called apothecia, they contain the spores for the lichen's reproduction. These lichens were photographed on tree bark at Tremont in the Smokies. 534
21 I found this Lichen mix growing on a tree in my yard. Note the black <em>prothallus</em>.

I found this Lichen mix growing on a tree in my yard. Note the black prothallus.

I found this Lichen mix growing on a tree in my yard. Note the black prothallus. 501
22 <strong>Common Script Lichen</strong>
<em>Graphis scripta</em>
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

This is such a cool-looking lichen when seen at higher magnifications! The little black lines are the <em>apothecia</em>, the spore-producing bo...

Common Script Lichen Graphis scripta Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This is such a cool-looking lichen when seen at higher magnifications! The little black lines are the apothecia, the spore-producing bo...

Common Script Lichen Graphis scripta Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This is such a cool-looking lichen when seen at higher magnifications! The little black lines are the apothecia, the spore-producing bodies of the lichen. This lichen is found on smooth-barked trees. 791
23 <strong>Common Button Lichen</strong> (possibly)
<em>Buellia stillingiana</em> 
Oak Ridge, TN
Feb. 24, 2009

This lichen is very common in the eastern half of the US. I found this one growing on the bark of a tree in my yard. The black <em>apothec...

Common Button Lichen (possibly) Buellia stillingiana Oak Ridge, TN Feb. 24, 2009 This lichen is very common in the eastern half of the US. I found this one growing on the bark of a tree in my yard. The black apothec...

Common Button Lichen (possibly) Buellia stillingiana Oak Ridge, TN Feb. 24, 2009 This lichen is very common in the eastern half of the US. I found this one growing on the bark of a tree in my yard. The black apothecia make this lichen easy to identify. 639
24 The yellowish crustose lichen in the center of this photo has been infected by a fungus!

The yellowish crustose lichen in the center of this photo has been infected by a fungus!

The yellowish crustose lichen in the center of this photo has been infected by a fungus! 553
25 A foliose Lichen on a tree.

A foliose Lichen on a tree.

A foliose Lichen on a tree. 572
26 <strong>Dog</strong> or <strong>Pelt Lichen</strong>
<em>Peltigera polydactylon</em>  
Piney River Trail, Spring City, TN

Thanks to the folks at the Lichen workshop I attended at the Tremont Institute in the Smoky Mountains (Feb. 2009), I finally ...

Dog or Pelt Lichen Peltigera polydactylon Piney River Trail, Spring City, TN Thanks to the folks at the Lichen workshop I attended at the Tremont Institute in the Smoky Mountains (Feb. 2009), I finally ...

Dog or Pelt Lichen Peltigera polydactylon Piney River Trail, Spring City, TN Thanks to the folks at the Lichen workshop I attended at the Tremont Institute in the Smoky Mountains (Feb. 2009), I finally learned what kind of lichen this is! Thanks, Jennifer! I have seen it often while hiking and thought it was unusual, but I never knew what it was. It grows on rocks, often interspersed with moss. Although it looks green it is not a plant, it is a lichen so it is classified in the Kingdom Fungi. The little brown knobs are the reproductive bodies called apothecia. 1088
27 <strong>Christmas Lichen</strong>
<em>Cryptothecia rubrocincta</em>
Munson, FL
Dec. 26, 2008

I had seen this pretty lichen in a state park near Orlando, FL in 2000; I was surprised by the bright red color. The red hue comes from a chemical called...

Christmas Lichen Cryptothecia rubrocincta Munson, FL Dec. 26, 2008 I had seen this pretty lichen in a state park near Orlando, FL in 2000; I was surprised by the bright red color. The red hue comes from a chemical called...

Christmas Lichen Cryptothecia rubrocincta Munson, FL Dec. 26, 2008 I had seen this pretty lichen in a state park near Orlando, FL in 2000; I was surprised by the bright red color. The red hue comes from a chemical called chiodectonic acid. The lichen is used as a dye in Brazil. 768
28 <strong>Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen</strong>
<em>Candelaria concolor</em> (yellow)
Great Smoky Mountains
Feb. 21, 2009
 

This pretty little yellow lichen is common on trees in the southeast. I thought it was interesting how this one was gro...

Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen Candelaria concolor (yellow) Great Smoky Mountains Feb. 21, 2009 This pretty little yellow lichen is common on trees in the southeast. I thought it was interesting how this one was gro...

Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen Candelaria concolor (yellow) Great Smoky Mountains Feb. 21, 2009 This pretty little yellow lichen is common on trees in the southeast. I thought it was interesting how this one was growing on another lichen. The olive-green plants nearby are small liverworts. 616
29 <strong>Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen</strong> close-up
<em>Candelaria concolor</em>
Oak Ridge, TN
Feb. 25, 2009

I found this lichen growing on the dogwood tree in my yard.

Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen close-up Candelaria concolor Oak Ridge, TN Feb. 25, 2009 I found this lichen growing on the dogwood tree in my yard.

Candleflame lichen; Lemon Lichen close-up Candelaria concolor Oak Ridge, TN Feb. 25, 2009 I found this lichen growing on the dogwood tree in my yard. 636
30 I liked the patterns of this lichen and how it changes color as it grows.

I liked the patterns of this lichen and how it changes color as it grows.

I liked the patterns of this lichen and how it changes color as it grows. 437
31 It is amazing how much this moth looks like lichen! It would nearly disappear on a lichen-covered tree.

It is amazing how much this moth looks like lichen! It would nearly disappear on a lichen-covered tree.

It is amazing how much this moth looks like lichen! It would nearly disappear on a lichen-covered tree. 574
32 <em>Parmotrema</em> spp. 
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

These black cilia are growing on the edges of the thallus of this lichen.

Parmotrema spp. Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 These black cilia are growing on the edges of the thallus of this lichen.

Parmotrema spp. Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 These black cilia are growing on the edges of the thallus of this lichen. 482
33 <strong>Lung Lichen</strong>
<em>Lobaria pulmonaria</em> 
Great Smoky Mountains NP
March 18, 2009

I was excited to find this lichen growing along the Porter's Creek trail. I had learned about it at the Lichen Workshop. This would have been green ...

Lung Lichen Lobaria pulmonaria Great Smoky Mountains NP March 18, 2009 I was excited to find this lichen growing along the Porter's Creek trail. I had learned about it at the Lichen Workshop. This would have been green ...

Lung Lichen Lobaria pulmonaria Great Smoky Mountains NP March 18, 2009 I was excited to find this lichen growing along the Porter's Creek trail. I had learned about it at the Lichen Workshop. This would have been green had it been wet. Note the "vein" texture on the lobes and the small bumpy apothecia on the edges. This lichen is often used as an indicator species for air quality studies since it is highly sensitive to pollutants. 569
34 <strong>Lung Lichen</strong> <em>isidia</em>

Lung Lichen isidia

Lung Lichen isidia 491
35 Lichen on a tree in the Great Smoky Mountains
I've got to work on the ID of this one!

Lichen on a tree in the Great Smoky Mountains I've got to work on the ID of this one!

Lichen on a tree in the Great Smoky Mountains I've got to work on the ID of this one! 469
36 <strong>Black-foam Lichen</strong> (possibly)
<em>Anzia colpodes</em>
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

Black-foam Lichen (possibly) Anzia colpodes Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009

Black-foam Lichen (possibly) Anzia colpodes Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 677
37 <strong>Tree Jelly Lichen</strong>
<em>Collema subflaccidum</em>  
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

These gelatinous black lichens contain <em>cyanobacteria</em> (blue-green algae) as their photobiont. They can grow on trees or on the soil....

Tree Jelly Lichen Collema subflaccidum Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 These gelatinous black lichens contain cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as their photobiont. They can grow on trees or on the soil....

Tree Jelly Lichen Collema subflaccidum Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 These gelatinous black lichens contain cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as their photobiont. They can grow on trees or on the soil. Jelly lichens often grow along with mosses. While surveying the trees in my yard, I was surprised to find this lichen growing on the bark of the Black Gum tree behind my house too. We have lived here for 27-1/2 years and I've never noticed it before! That proves there is always something new to see and learn about! :) 633
38 <strong>Common Toadskin Lichen</strong>
<em>Lasallia papulosa</em> 

This is an example of an "umbilicate" lichen. Note the central area where it is attached to the rock from below. I photographed this knobby lichen on a boulder at Big South Fork. I...

Common Toadskin Lichen Lasallia papulosa This is an example of an "umbilicate" lichen. Note the central area where it is attached to the rock from below. I photographed this knobby lichen on a boulder at Big South Fork. I...

Common Toadskin Lichen Lasallia papulosa This is an example of an "umbilicate" lichen. Note the central area where it is attached to the rock from below. I photographed this knobby lichen on a boulder at Big South Fork. I like the common name, it is very appropriate for this lichen! :) 593
39 <strong>Rock Tripe</strong>
<em>Umbilicaria mammulata</em>
Piney River SNA, Spring City, TN

Rock Tripe is an odd, large, leathery lichen that is often found growing on boulders and sides of cliffs. This lichen has been used as a survival food in e...

Rock Tripe Umbilicaria mammulata Piney River SNA, Spring City, TN Rock Tripe is an odd, large, leathery lichen that is often found growing on boulders and sides of cliffs. This lichen has been used as a survival food in e...

Rock Tripe Umbilicaria mammulata Piney River SNA, Spring City, TN Rock Tripe is an odd, large, leathery lichen that is often found growing on boulders and sides of cliffs. This lichen has been used as a survival food in early times to help ward off starvation. I guess you'd have to be really hungry to eat something that looks like this! 581
40 <strong>Dixie Reindeer lichen </strong> - a fruticose lichen
<em>Cladina subtenuis</em>
Big South Fork

This type of lichen grows on the ground. It is soft and spongy when damp, it crumbles if stepped upon when dry. It is very common in limestone c...

Dixie Reindeer lichen - a fruticose lichen Cladina subtenuis Big South Fork This type of lichen grows on the ground. It is soft and spongy when damp, it crumbles if stepped upon when dry. It is very common in limestone c...

Dixie Reindeer lichen - a fruticose lichen Cladina subtenuis Big South Fork This type of lichen grows on the ground. It is soft and spongy when damp, it crumbles if stepped upon when dry. It is very common in limestone cedar glade areas in Tennessee. Lichens are very sensitive to environmental changes because they aborb pollutants from the air. High concentrations of smog can kill lichens. 1448
41 <strong>Dixie Reindeer lichen </strong>
<em>Cladina subtenuis</em>
Big South Fork
March 21, 2009

Note the dichotomous branching of this lichen's branches. These lichens are soft and spongy when wet, but are brittle when dry and will break if step...

Dixie Reindeer lichen Cladina subtenuis Big South Fork March 21, 2009 Note the dichotomous branching of this lichen's branches. These lichens are soft and spongy when wet, but are brittle when dry and will break if step...

Dixie Reindeer lichen Cladina subtenuis Big South Fork March 21, 2009 Note the dichotomous branching of this lichen's branches. These lichens are soft and spongy when wet, but are brittle when dry and will break if stepped on. 581
42 I photographed these Reindeer Lichens on top of North Arch at Big South Fork. Both the Gray and Dixie Reindeer Lichens are growing here.

I photographed these Reindeer Lichens on top of North Arch at Big South Fork. Both the Gray and Dixie Reindeer Lichens are growing here.

I photographed these Reindeer Lichens on top of North Arch at Big South Fork. Both the Gray and Dixie Reindeer Lichens are growing here. 496
43 <strong>Gray Reindeer Lichen</strong>
<em>Cladina rangiferina</em>
Big South Fork (Oneida, TN)
March 21, 2009

The little brown, bent tips of this lichen help in identification, but it takes close-up observation to see them. I found this lichen gr...

Gray Reindeer Lichen Cladina rangiferina Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 The little brown, bent tips of this lichen help in identification, but it takes close-up observation to see them. I found this lichen gr...

Gray Reindeer Lichen Cladina rangiferina Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 The little brown, bent tips of this lichen help in identification, but it takes close-up observation to see them. I found this lichen growing next to Dixie Reindeer lichen (Cladina subtenuis) which was a more greenish tint. 524
44 I spied this gaudy orange and gold ball in the lobby of an Austin, TX hotel. Upon further inspection I finally realized it was made of dyed Reindeer lichen wrapped with wire! What indignity to befall those organisms!

I spied this gaudy orange and gold ball in the lobby of an Austin, TX hotel. Upon further inspection I finally realized it was made of dyed Reindeer lichen wrapped with wire! What indignity to befall those organisms!

I spied this gaudy orange and gold ball in the lobby of an Austin, TX hotel. Upon further inspection I finally realized it was made of dyed Reindeer lichen wrapped with wire! What indignity to befall those organisms! 542
45 <strong>Sinewed Ramalina</strong> - a fruiticose lichen
<em>Ramalina americana</em> 
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 22, 2009
 
These flat-branched lichens are commonly found growing on tree bark. Larger specimens have round, flat apothecia on the e...

Sinewed Ramalina - a fruiticose lichen Ramalina americana Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 22, 2009 These flat-branched lichens are commonly found growing on tree bark. Larger specimens have round, flat apothecia on the e...

Sinewed Ramalina - a fruiticose lichen Ramalina americana Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 22, 2009 These flat-branched lichens are commonly found growing on tree bark. Larger specimens have round, flat apothecia on the ends of the branches. The scientific names of some of the lichens are fun to say, like "Ramalina"! 2001
46 <strong>American Wolf Lichen</strong><em>Letharia columbiana</em>Taft, CAMarch 22, 2007I found this odd lime-green lichen growing on the north side of a fence post in the mountains above Taft, CA (on the day that I was yearning to see some gr...

American Wolf LichenLetharia columbianaTaft, CAMarch 22, 2007I found this odd lime-green lichen growing on the north side of a fence post in the mountains above Taft, CA (on the day that I was yearning to see some gr...

American Wolf Lichen Letharia columbiana Taft, CA March 22, 2007 I found this odd lime-green lichen growing on the north side of a fence post in the mountains above Taft, CA (on the day that I was yearning to see some green grass after spending a week in the desert!). Note the huge, brown apothecia. This lichen gets its name from the fact that it was once used to kill wolves. 661
47 <strong>Bushy Beard Lichen</strong>
<em>Usnea strigosa</em>
Oak Ridge, TN
January 28, 2009

This strange lichen likes to grow on Maple trees. We have Silver Maples (unfortunately!) in our yard, it is very common to find this strange lichen on the ...

Bushy Beard Lichen Usnea strigosa Oak Ridge, TN January 28, 2009 This strange lichen likes to grow on Maple trees. We have Silver Maples (unfortunately!) in our yard, it is very common to find this strange lichen on the ...

Bushy Beard Lichen Usnea strigosa Oak Ridge, TN January 28, 2009 This strange lichen likes to grow on Maple trees. We have Silver Maples (unfortunately!) in our yard, it is very common to find this strange lichen on the ground after a windy day. Lichens just use tree bark as a substrate to grow on, they do not damage the tree. The flat, fringed patches are the reproductive bodies, called apothecia. 873
48 The <em>Usnea</em> species of lichens have a central core made up of hyphae strands called the <em>axis</em>; it gives the branches rigidity. This core can be revealed by gently pulling the green cortex and medulla layers off. The axis is an identifyin...

The Usnea species of lichens have a central core made up of hyphae strands called the axis; it gives the branches rigidity. This core can be revealed by gently pulling the green cortex and medulla layers off. The axis is an identifyin...

The Usnea species of lichens have a central core made up of hyphae strands called the axis; it gives the branches rigidity. This core can be revealed by gently pulling the green cortex and medulla layers off. The axis is an identifying characteristic for this genus. 536
49 Diagram of the Cross-section of an <em>Usnea strigosa</em> lichen branch

Diagram of the Cross-section of an Usnea strigosa lichen branch

Diagram of the Cross-section of an Usnea strigosa lichen branch 581
50 <strong>Red Beard Lichen</strong>
<em>Usnea rubicunda</em> - a fruticose lichen
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

Unlike its close relative, <em>Usnea strigosa</em>, this lichen does not have the large apothecia and it is not as "fuzzy". A f...

Red Beard Lichen Usnea rubicunda - a fruticose lichen Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 Unlike its close relative, Usnea strigosa, this lichen does not have the large apothecia and it is not as "fuzzy". A f...

Red Beard Lichen Usnea rubicunda - a fruticose lichen Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 Unlike its close relative, Usnea strigosa, this lichen does not have the large apothecia and it is not as "fuzzy". A fun fact about the Usnea species is if you carefully pull apart a large branch you will see a white central "cord", a good identifying characteristic. 577
51 <strong>Silken Beard Lichen</strong>
<em>Usnea hesperina</em>?
Great Smoky Mountains NP
March 18, 2009

I found this long, fruticose lichen growing on a tree trunk along the Porter's Creek trail.

Silken Beard Lichen Usnea hesperina? Great Smoky Mountains NP March 18, 2009 I found this long, fruticose lichen growing on a tree trunk along the Porter's Creek trail.

Silken Beard Lichen Usnea hesperina? Great Smoky Mountains NP March 18, 2009 I found this long, fruticose lichen growing on a tree trunk along the Porter's Creek trail. 513
52 <strong>Black Shag Lichen </strong>
<em>Ephebe lanata</em>
Big South Fork (Oneida, TN)
March 21, 2009

This was a really weird lichen! I wasn't even sure it was a lichen, but I remembered they can be black due to the cyanobacteria (blue-green alga...

Black Shag Lichen Ephebe lanata Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 This was a really weird lichen! I wasn't even sure it was a lichen, but I remembered they can be black due to the cyanobacteria (blue-green alga...

Black Shag Lichen Ephebe lanata Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 This was a really weird lichen! I wasn't even sure it was a lichen, but I remembered they can be black due to the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in the cells. I photographed this lichen growing on a rock wall near Slave Falls in the Big South Fork area. 567
53 These Black Shag and white powdery Lichens were growing on a damp rock cliff at Big South Fork.

These Black Shag and white powdery Lichens were growing on a damp rock cliff at Big South Fork.

These Black Shag and white powdery Lichens were growing on a damp rock cliff at Big South Fork. 518
54 I found this shaggy orange lichen growing on a rock near Virgin Falls at Virgin Falls State Natural Area.

I found this shaggy orange lichen growing on a rock near Virgin Falls at Virgin Falls State Natural Area.

I found this shaggy orange lichen growing on a rock near Virgin Falls at Virgin Falls State Natural Area. 450
55 The shelf-like growth pattern of a squamulose lichen (<em>Cladonia</em>) is visible in this photo.

The shelf-like growth pattern of a squamulose lichen (Cladonia) is visible in this photo.

The shelf-like growth pattern of a squamulose lichen (Cladonia) is visible in this photo. 563
56 <strong>Peg Lichen</strong>
<em>Cladonia sobolescens</em>?

This lichen is related to the Pixie Cups and British Soldier lichens. It has short <em>podetia</em> with brown apothecia instead of red.

Peg Lichen Cladonia sobolescens? This lichen is related to the Pixie Cups and British Soldier lichens. It has short podetia with brown apothecia instead of red.

Peg Lichen Cladonia sobolescens? This lichen is related to the Pixie Cups and British Soldier lichens. It has short podetia with brown apothecia instead of red. 521
57 <strong>British Soldier Lichen</strong> 
<em>Cladonia cristatella</em>

The reproductive bodies of this squamulose lichen are bright red like the coats of the British soldiers during the Revolutionary War, which gives the lichen its name.
These lic...

British Soldier Lichen Cladonia cristatella The reproductive bodies of this squamulose lichen are bright red like the coats of the British soldiers during the Revolutionary War, which gives the lichen its name. These lic...

British Soldier Lichen Cladonia cristatella The reproductive bodies of this squamulose lichen are bright red like the coats of the British soldiers during the Revolutionary War, which gives the lichen its name. These lichens grow on the ground, decayed wood, or on tree bark. I remember learning about this lichen when I was in the Girl Scouts many years ago; this is one reason I love sharing my knowledge and passion for nature with children, I hope that someday they too will pass on their knowledge with the upcoming generations! 1271
58 <strong>Gritty British Soldiers Lichen</strong>
<em>Cladonia floerkeana</em>
Big South Fork (Oneida, TN)
March 21, 2009

I never realized how many different kinds of "British Soldier Lichen" there are until I got my <u>Lichens of North America</u>...

Gritty British Soldiers Lichen Cladonia floerkeana Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 I never realized how many different kinds of "British Soldier Lichen" there are until I got my Lichens of North America...

Gritty British Soldiers Lichen Cladonia floerkeana Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 I never realized how many different kinds of "British Soldier Lichen" there are until I got my Lichens of North America book. This one is much more scaly than C. cristatella. 609
59 <strong>Dragon Funnel Lichen </strong>
<em>Cladonia squamosa</em>
Big South Fork (Oneida, TN)
March 21, 2009

This is a very odd little squamulose lichen. The branches (podetia) form little cups or branch even further at the ends.

Dragon Funnel Lichen Cladonia squamosa Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 This is a very odd little squamulose lichen. The branches (podetia) form little cups or branch even further at the ends.

Dragon Funnel Lichen Cladonia squamosa Big South Fork (Oneida, TN) March 21, 2009 This is a very odd little squamulose lichen. The branches (podetia) form little cups or branch even further at the ends. 509
60 <strong>Common Powderhorn</strong>
<em>Cladonia coniocraea</em> 
Great Smoky Mountains NP
Feb. 21, 2009

This tiny squamulose lichen had long, thin podetia. It grew on the ground along a trail in the Smokies.

Common Powderhorn Cladonia coniocraea Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This tiny squamulose lichen had long, thin podetia. It grew on the ground along a trail in the Smokies.

Common Powderhorn Cladonia coniocraea Great Smoky Mountains NP Feb. 21, 2009 This tiny squamulose lichen had long, thin podetia. It grew on the ground along a trail in the Smokies. 464
61 <strong>Pebbled Pixie-cup Lichen</strong> 
<em>Cladonia pixidata</em>
Big South Fork 
Dec. 2007

I was delighted to find these charming little  lichens growing along the John Muir Overlook trail in the Big South Fork. They were about 1/2-inch tall...

Pebbled Pixie-cup Lichen Cladonia pixidata Big South Fork Dec. 2007 I was delighted to find these charming little lichens growing along the John Muir Overlook trail in the Big South Fork. They were about 1/2-inch tall...

Pebbled Pixie-cup Lichen Cladonia pixidata Big South Fork Dec. 2007 I was delighted to find these charming little lichens growing along the John Muir Overlook trail in the Big South Fork. They were about 1/2-inch tall. These squamulose (shelf-like) lichens grow on the ground and produce their spores in the little cupped structures, called podetia. 899
62 These little grainy structures are called <em>isidia</em>, they are the reproductive bodies of this lichen.

These little grainy structures are called isidia, they are the reproductive bodies of this lichen.

These little grainy structures are called isidia, they are the reproductive bodies of this lichen. 453
63 One of the workshop participants was an interpretive ranger with the park. She explained the history of dyeing fibers with lichens. Here she is pulling the skeins of wool that we dyed in a mixture of lichens and boiling water.

One of the workshop participants was an interpretive ranger with the park. She explained the history of dyeing fibers with lichens. Here she is pulling the skeins of wool that we dyed in a mixture of lichens and boiling water.

One of the workshop participants was an interpretive ranger with the park. She explained the history of dyeing fibers with lichens. Here she is pulling the skeins of wool that we dyed in a mixture of lichens and boiling water. 421
64 These two workshop participants are preparing to put their soaked lichen in a homemade <em>meiofauna</em> collection plate made of 3 disposable  plastic plates, a circular piece of plastic "needlepoint canvas", and a piece of facial tissue (or a Kimwip...

These two workshop participants are preparing to put their soaked lichen in a homemade meiofauna collection plate made of 3 disposable plastic plates, a circular piece of plastic "needlepoint canvas", and a piece of facial tissue (or a Kimwip...

These two workshop participants are preparing to put their soaked lichen in a homemade meiofauna collection plate made of 3 disposable plastic plates, a circular piece of plastic "needlepoint canvas", and a piece of facial tissue (or a Kimwipe). After straining out the large pieces we looked at the water (from the bottom plate) under a stereomicroscope and a compound microscope. Some of the organisms we found were: tardigrades (water bears), nematodes (roundworms), rotifers, mites and protozoa. 399
65 After I got back from the Lichen workshop at Tremont, I was anxious to see what our trees had to offer in meiofauna. We had some of our Silver Maple trees trimmed (<u>not</u> topped!) recently, so there was a huge supply of lichens easily available. I ...

After I got back from the Lichen workshop at Tremont, I was anxious to see what our trees had to offer in meiofauna. We had some of our Silver Maple trees trimmed (not topped!) recently, so there was a huge supply of lichens easily available. I ...

After I got back from the Lichen workshop at Tremont, I was anxious to see what our trees had to offer in meiofauna. We had some of our Silver Maple trees trimmed (not topped!) recently, so there was a huge supply of lichens easily available. I soaked them in a jar of water overnight and looked at them the next day. I was surprised to find a Desmid (single-celled alga) in my collection water. Meiofauna are microscopic animals, protozoa, and algae that live in the sediment layer between the lichen and the tree bark. Unfortunately, I didn't find any Water Bears (Tardigrades) in my sample. 419
66 I got a kick out of seeing these squiggly marks on the lichen on tree bark. A  hungry snail or slug rasped away with its radula (mouthparts) to eat the lichen, leaving these telltale marks behind.

I got a kick out of seeing these squiggly marks on the lichen on tree bark. A hungry snail or slug rasped away with its radula (mouthparts) to eat the lichen, leaving these telltale marks behind.

I got a kick out of seeing these squiggly marks on the lichen on tree bark. A hungry snail or slug rasped away with its radula (mouthparts) to eat the lichen, leaving these telltale marks behind. 464
67 <strong>Palmetto Lichen</strong> (center, flat greenish-white with white circles)
<em>Ramalina delastri</em>

<strong>Slender Orange Bush Lichen</strong> (yellow)
<em>Teloschistes exilis</em>
Bastrop, TX
March 26, 2009

When Kenny and I went to...

Palmetto Lichen (center, flat greenish-white with white circles) Ramalina delastri Slender Orange Bush Lichen (yellow) Teloschistes exilis Bastrop, TX March 26, 2009 When Kenny and I went to...

Palmetto Lichen (center, flat greenish-white with white circles) Ramalina delastri Slender Orange Bush Lichen (yellow) Teloschistes exilis Bastrop, TX March 26, 2009 When Kenny and I went to Central Texas during Spring Break of 2009, I was amazed at the incredible variety of lichens I saw on the trees and rocks! There were lots of twigs on the ground with mixtures of lichens on them due to a wind storm earlier that morning. 515
68 This twig from a tree in Bastrop, TX was completely covered with a mix of odd lichens!

This twig from a tree in Bastrop, TX was completely covered with a mix of odd lichens!

This twig from a tree in Bastrop, TX was completely covered with a mix of odd lichens! 417
69 <strong>Pale Rockwool</strong>
<em>Speerschneidera euploca</em>
Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP)
March 29, 2009

I found this odd lichen growing on a limestone boulder in Lost Maples State Park during our trip to Texas.

Pale Rockwool Speerschneidera euploca Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP) March 29, 2009 I found this odd lichen growing on a limestone boulder in Lost Maples State Park during our trip to Texas.

Pale Rockwool Speerschneidera euploca Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP) March 29, 2009 I found this odd lichen growing on a limestone boulder in Lost Maples State Park during our trip to Texas. 468
70 <strong>Pitted Stone Lichen</strong> (white with black dots) (possibly)
<em>Verrucaria calciseda</em>?

<strong>Sulphur-firedot Lichen</strong> (yellow with orange apothecia) (possibly)
<em>Caloplaca flavovirescens</em>?
Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP...

Pitted Stone Lichen (white with black dots) (possibly) Verrucaria calciseda? Sulphur-firedot Lichen (yellow with orange apothecia) (possibly) Caloplaca flavovirescens? Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP...

Pitted Stone Lichen (white with black dots) (possibly) Verrucaria calciseda? Sulphur-firedot Lichen (yellow with orange apothecia) (possibly) Caloplaca flavovirescens? Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP) March 29, 2009 I found several kinds of lichens growing on the limestone rocks along the trail at Lost Maples State Park. 431
71 <strong>Pitted Stone Lichen</strong> (white with black dots) (possibly)
<em>Verrucaria calciseda</em>?

This lichen looked as though it had been pricked with a pin, the black holes were very tiny. 


Copy of Liverwort lichen

Pitted Stone Lichen (white with black dots) (possibly) Verrucaria calciseda? This lichen looked as though it had been pricked with a pin, the black holes were very tiny. Copy of Liverwort lichen

Pitted Stone Lichen (white with black dots) (possibly) Verrucaria calciseda? This lichen looked as though it had been pricked with a pin, the black holes were very tiny. Copy of Liverwort lichen 459
72 This tree at the San Antonio, TX Botanical Gardens looked as though it had been painted, but the white marks are actually lichens.

This tree at the San Antonio, TX Botanical Gardens looked as though it had been painted, but the white marks are actually lichens.

This tree at the San Antonio, TX Botanical Gardens looked as though it had been painted, but the white marks are actually lichens. 407
73 <strong>Leather Lichen</strong> (possibly)
<em>Dermatocarpon miniatum</em>?
Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP)
March 29, 2009

Leather Lichen (possibly) Dermatocarpon miniatum? Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP) March 29, 2009

Leather Lichen (possibly) Dermatocarpon miniatum? Leakey, TX (Lost Maples SP) March 29, 2009 466
74 Copy of Lichens HR-mix1

Copy of Lichens HR-mix1

Copy of Lichens HR-mix1 577

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